Michael Kruger – Inerrancy: Why It’s Essential

Michael Kruger Inerrancy is not a popular term in the world of biblical studies today. For many, it is viewed asananti-intellectual, fear-motivated invention of nineteenth-and twentieth-century American fundamentalists who were tryingto protect the Bible’s authority from the rising tide of Enlightenment rationalism. A.E. Harvey, in his recent book Is Scripture Still Holy? captures the modern academic sentiment quite well: “Inerrancy…is both theologically and philosophically indefensible and rightly rejected by the majority voice of a generation which has, in this respect, genuinely ‘come of age.’”

Unfortunately, these sorts of criticisms are all too common. Inerrancy is portrayed as out of date, academically naive, intellectually dishonest, and (perhaps most surprisingly) even unbiblical. In the midst of such a climate, more and more evangelicals are shying away from the doctrine of inerrancy for fear that they will be the unfortunate recipients of such labels.

Definition of Inerrancy

So what is it about inerrancy that engenders such reactions even from some professing evangelicals? One might think that inerrancy must be one of the most ridiculous doctrines ever conceived. Surely it must be the equivalent of belief in a geocentric universe (actually, such comparisons have been made). But, in fact, the doctrine of inerrancy is simple and, in the scope of church history, uncontroversial.

Put simply, the doctrine of inerrancy is the belief that the Bible is true.

Of course, there is much more to say about the definition than this. Countless books have been written explaining, defining, and defending this doctrine, not to mention the affirmations and denials of the 1978 Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy. But the gist of inerrancy is the belief that the Bible is God’s Word and that when God speaks, He speaks truth. Thus, belief in inerrancy is the conviction that whatever the Bible affirms is accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

The belief that the Bible is true is hardly a scandalous and unprecedented idea. Indeed, the belief in inerrancy is rather tame when compared to other language that Christians have used regarding the Bible. Christians have historically claimed that the Bible is infallible, an even stronger claim than inerrancy. Whereas inerrancy simply means that the Bible is free from error, infallibility means the Bible is incapable of erring—a much more rigorous property. Inerrancy does not require infallibility, but infallibility requires inerrancy. Put differently, inerrancy flows naturally from other Christian truths we already believe (and that have been believed throughout church history).

Objections to Inerrancy

Given these considerations, one might wonder what the fuss is all about regarding inerrancy. In order to answer that question, let us examine some of the main objections that have been made.

1. Inerrancy is a new (and American) idea within the history of Christianity. Some have insisted that inerrancy is an invention of American fundamentalism and is thus an idea without precedent in the history of Christianity. Such a misconception may be due to semantics—some are hung up on the history of the word inerrancy itself. But the concept of inerrancy, the idea that the Bible is true in all that it affirms, is by no means an American invention. It has been the standard view throughout the history of the church. In the fifth century, Augustine said, “Only to those books which are called canonical have I learned to give honor so that I believe most firmly that no author in these books made any error in writing.”

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Eric Chabot – Why the Hypothesis that God Raised Jesus from the Dead is the Best Explanation


When it comes to the Christian faith, there is no doctrine more important than the resurrection of Jesus. Biblical faith is not simply centered in ethical and religious teachings. Instead, it is founded on the person and work of Jesus. If Jesus was not raised from the dead, we as His followers are still dead in our sins (1Cor.15:7).

Here are four reasons why I think the hypothesis that God raised Jesus from the dead is the best explanation:

1. The Bodily Resurrection of Jesus Explains the Post-Mortem Appearances to the Disciples.

In his recent book called The Resurrection of Jesus: A New Historiographical Approach, New Testament historian Mike Licona discusses what is called “The Historical Bedrock.” These three facts about the Historical Jesus are held by many critical scholars and historians.

The three points included as part of The Historical Bedrock are:

  • 1. Jesus’ death by crucifixion
  • 2. Very shortly after Jesus’ death, the disciples had experiences that led them to believe and proclaim that Jesus had been resurrected and had appeared to them.
  • 3. Within a few years after Jesus death, Paul became a follower of Jesus after a personal experience that he interpreted as a post resurrection appearance of Jesus to him.

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Book Review – Clean: A Proven Plan for Men Committed to Sexual Integrity by Dr. Douglas Weiss

Flee sexual immorality. Every sin that a man does is outside the body, but he who commits sexual immorality sins against his own body. Or do you not know that your body is the temple of the Holy Spirit who is in you, whom you have from God, and you are not your own? For you were bought at a price; therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God’s. (I Cor. 6:18-20)

The Apostle Paul in the above passage admonishes the believer to at all costs flee from sexual immorality. In an age where all manner of sexual perversion has inundated our society and where access to sexually explicit material can be had from your cell phone to the internet to movies, fleeing sexually immoral behavior and its rabid hold on many even within the church is admittedly difficult. How are we supposed to flee something that is seemingly everywhere around us?

Counselor, author, and sexual addiction expert Dr. Douglas Weiss, in his book Clean: A Proven Plan for Men Committed to Sexual Integrity presents a number of helpful steps focused specifically on helping men address addiction to sin through a sound and tested biblically focused model.

Weiss begins his book with some rather disturbing statistics concerning the vast influence and hold pornography and sexually explicit materials has on adults and teenagers, male and female alike. Perhaps most disturbing are the statistics regarding the influence of pornography on church leaders. While such statistics are rather disheartening, facing the facts of the matter is one of the first steps to identify the problem. As Weiss correctly notes, not facing this harmful and destructive issue could cause Christian men to “grow coldhearted and believe that viewing pornography is not even a sin.”

A tactic often utilized by Satan is the temptation of sexual sin. Weiss appropriately avers a number of examples presented in Scripture where the response of the one tempted had a direct impact on their life. He notes the response of Joseph to sexual temptation, namely Joseph literally fleeing from Potipher’s wife comparing that with the life of Samson, a man who more often than not, chose to succumb to the wiles of sexual immorality. Thus, understanding the grave impact sexual sin can have on your life is vital. This is not something to treat lightly. Weiss aptly notes “God does not tolerate sexual sin. He never has and he never will…Tolerance of this type of sin in our lives and in the local church is unacceptable.” But wait, there’s more!

Stephen Altrogge – How To Pray For The Man Who Kills Babies

Kermit Gosnell is currently on trial for the twenty-plus years of atrocities that took place in his abortion clinic. The details of what actually happened in that clinic are enough to make you vomit, scream, and want to punch a wall. The more I read about the case the more it becomes clear that Kermit Gosnell was an evil man who did tremendously evil things. Horrific, holocaust-like things. Demonic things.

How should we Christians respond to this kind of evil? After all, Jesus commanded us to pray for our enemies and to do good to those who mistreat us. So how do we respond to a man who has killed babies, hurt women, and committed other untold wicked deeds? We respond in two ways.


There is such a thing as godly rage. In Romans 13:3-4 it says:

For rulers are not a terror to good conduct, but to bad. Would you have no fear of the one who is in authority? Then do what is good, and you will receive his approval, for he is God’s servant for your good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for he does not bear the sword in vain. For he is the servant of God, an avenger who carries out God’s wrath on the wrongdoer.

God appoints rulers, judges, presidents, kings, and supreme courts to act as servants on his behalf. They are appointed by God to execute God’s wrath upon those who do evil. God has placed a divine sword in the hands of the men and women who rule our country, and they are to use that sword on behalf of the Lord.

Therefore, it is appropriate to pray that Kermit Gosnell would receive divine justice. It is right to pray that government would convict him of his crimes and appropriately sentence him for his crimes. If that means the death penalty, so be it. We should pray that Kermit Gosnell would receive justice for the wickedness he has done. It is right to pray that the government would fulfill its God-given duty.

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Mark Howard – Peter: Hope for Pastors

I was happy in my previous job as a fundraising consultant. I never dreamt of full-time church ministry, and I definitely didn’t think of myself as a good fit for youth ministry. I don’t have a jazzy personality, and I’m not naturally outgoing. I much prefer to be in the background than in the spotlight.

But, in an unexpected twist of life, circumstances, and calling—I have now been in youth ministry for nearly four years. In that time, God has pushed me to grow personally and as a minister. He’s exposed many weaknesses, yet he’s also shown that he is faithful to those who trust in him.

It’s been a bumpy road—as those of you who’ve been in ministry far longer already know, and those of you who are just starting are probably learning.

In this journey, I’ve found the apostle Peter to be a great source of comfort and hope. Here’s an ordinary man, a fisherman by trade, who heard the call of Jesus and responded with his usual impulsiveness to Christ’s appeal.

I admire Peter’s zeal and find inspiration in his willingness to put himself “out there” for Jesus. I need to be encouraged and spurred on by his boldness. Yet I really appreciate the way the Spirit not only preserves stories of Peter’s zeal and faith but also (and often in quick succession) gives to us stories of Peter’s failures, lack of faith, and struggle to overcome his shortcomings.

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Tim Challies – Ghandi Doesn’t Like Us

How many times have you come across this quote attributed to Mahatma Gandhi? “I like your Christ. I do not like your Christians. Your Christians are so unlike your Christ.” I must have read it a hundred times in books, magazines, articles, tweets. It is used by believers and unbelievers to point to the hypocrisy of Christians and to call us to more and to better. Our inability to live what we preach is driving the multitudes away. Or so we are told. After all, that’s what Gandhi said.

We need to stop using this quote and I’m going to give you two good reasons to do so. In the first place, Gandhi was hardly an authority on Jesus. When he says, “I like your Christ” he is referring to a Jesus of his own making, a Jesus plucked haphazardly from the pages of Scripture, a Jeffersonian kind of Jesus, picked and chosen from the accounts of his life. He certainly was not referring to the Jesus—the true and complete Jesus—revealed from the first page of Scripture to the last. He did not refer to the Jesus who stands reading with a sword of judgment, the Jesus who made unwavering claims of his own deity and eternality, who declared that he was and is the only way to be made right with God. Jesus the good man, Jesus the teacher, Jesus the moralist, perhaps, but never Jesus who was and is and is to come.

Whatever Jesus Gandhi liked was certainly not the Jesus of the Bible. Why then should we care if we do not attain to this falsified version of Jesus? I would be ashamed to have any appearance to the kind of Jesus that Gandhi would deem good and acceptable and worthy of emulation. That Jesus would, of course, have to look an awful lot like Gandhi. So there is one good reason to stop using this quote: because Gandhi fabricated a Jesus of his own making and declared his affection only for this fictional character. He never liked the real thing.

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Dr. John MacArthur – The Steps of Biblical Santification

You probably hear a lot about God’s sanctifying work in your life through His Word. But what does that process look like? How do you know if the living truth of Scripture is actually at work in your life? How do you know that God’s Word has actually taken root in your life?

To help you understand your own spiritual growth and how God’s Word works in your life, I want to highlight the key steps in the process of sanctification with three simple words.

The first is cognition. God’s pattern for spiritual growth starts with understanding what the Bible says and what it means. The meaning of the Scripture is the Scripture—if you don’t know what it means, you don’t have the truth. So the process of spiritual growth starts with understanding what the Bible says.

Many years ago as a child, the importance of knowing and understanding God’s Word was impressed upon me. I began to read my Bible repetitiously—day after day, over and over. The further I went, the more connections I was able to draw from book to book. After a few years, I was overwhelmed with the understanding that the Bible is its own interpreter. And you can see that conviction borne out in my teaching to this day.

True sanctification begins with renewing your mind. You must know the truth, plain and simple. There’s no premium on ignorance in sanctification. You’re not going to get there through some emotional or mystical experience. Spiritual growth won’t happen by osmosis—it requires the discipline of constantly putting God’s truth in your mind.

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George Eldon Ladd – The Historic Hope of the Church

The question of the relationship of the Rapture to that of the Tribulation may be set in proper perspective if we first survey the history of prophetic interpretation. The hope of the Church throughout the early centuries was the second coming of Christ, not a pretribulation rapture. If the Blessed Hope is in fact a pretribulation rapture, then the Church has never known that hope through most of its history, for the idea of a pretribulation rapture did not appear in prophetic interpretation until the nineteenth century.

Pretribulationists are reluctant to admit this. Books which defend this pattern of prophetic teaching frequently try to show that it is an ancient teaching extending all the way back to apostolic times. They usually seek proof in the assertion that the early fathers believed in the imminence of Christ’s return. If the return of Christ was an event for which men were looking – so the argument runs – then the coming of Christ was expected to occur at any moment, i.e., before the Tribulation and before Antichrist appeared. In this chapter, we shall trace the broad outlines of the history of prophetic interpretation with reference to the Church and the Tribulation to discover whether a pretribulation rapture was an element in the hope of the Church.

Let it be at once emphasized that we are not turning to the church fathers to find authority for either pre- or posttribulationism. The one authority is the Word of God, and we are not confined in the strait-jacket of tradition. Our purpose is to place this question in a proper historical perspective, inasmuch as some teachers claim that pre-tribulationism is an ancient and honorable doctrine and one which is necessary for Christian faith. While tradition does not provide authority, it would nevertheless be difficult to suppose that God had left His people in ignorance of an essential truth for nineteen centuries.

The early church lived in expectation of Christ’s return. “Ye perceive how in a little time the fruit of a tree comes to maturity. Of a truth, soon and suddenly shall His will be accomplished, as the Scripture also bears witness, saying, ‘Speedily will He come and will not tarry,’ and ‘The Lord shall suddenly come to His temple, even the Holy One, for whom ye look’ ” (I Clement 23). To deduce from this attitude of expectancy a belief in a pretribulation rapture and an any-moment coming of Christ, as has often been done, is not sound. The expectation of the coming of Christ included the events which would attend and precede His coming. The early fathers who emphasized an attitude of expectancy believed that this entire complex of events – Antichrist, tribulation, return of Christ – would soon occur. This is not the same as an any-moment coming of Christ.

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Nick Batzig – The Cursed and Blessed Ground

36441-the-ground In recent years it has become common for theologians to give focused treatment to the sphere (i.e. the sacred space) in which redemption occurs. The Temple motif–from the Garden of Eden to the Heavenly City (i.e. the New Jerusalem)–is traced out in such noteworthy works as O. Palmer Robertson’s Christ of the Prophets, and Understanding the Land of the Bible; T. Desmond Alexander’s From Paradise to the Promised Land, and From Eden to the New Jerusalem; William J. Dumbrell’s Covenant and Creation; G.K. Beale’s The Temple and the Church’s Mission, John Fesko’s Last Things First, and Meredith Kline’s Kingdom Prologue.

The restoration of Eden moves from the Garden of Eden to the Land of Israel to the Temple to the incarnate Jesus to His eternal dwelling with His Bride, the Church. The Scriptures move through all of these “dwelling places” from the Garden-Temple (Gen. 2-3) to the Garden-Bride (Rev. 21-22). All of this is built upon the fact that man was made out of “the ground.” A biblical-theological consideration of “the ground” will help us better tie all of this together from creation to the new creation in Christ.

Eden was a special place, a physical location (i.e. a land), in which Adam was place by God at Creation. Man was made from “the ground” outside of the Garden and then, by God’s grace, was placed within this paradisical sacred space. It was the prototypical Promised Land. There is also identification between Eden and the Temple–the place where God is worshiped by man, and where God dwells with man. The presence of lilies, palm trees, and pomegranates carved around the outside of the Temple are meant to bring the minds of the people of God back to Eden.

Throughout the Old Testament era, the Lord was moving everything toward the restoration of the blessing of Eden. This in turn ought to move our attention back to the Garden of Eden to find hints as to the ground/land/world connection. This is the case if we begin at the beginning, with the creation of man.

In Genesis 2:7 we are told that God formed man out of the dust of the ground. The ground (הָאֲדָמָה) was man’s original environment. In fact, there seems to be an intentional play on words in Gen. 1:27 where we are told that the Lord formed הָאָדָם (i.e. the man) out of the הָאֲדָמָה (i.e. the ground). There is a clear connection between the ground, and the man who was formed out of the ground. The name Adam lit. means ‘red.’ Since he was made out of red-like clay of the ground, the name is a play on the word ground (הָאֲדָמָה). The close relationship between man and beast may be argued, in part, from the fact that both are created on the same day (Gen. 1:24; 26-27), as living, moving and breathing beings, and from the same place–the ground. The dissimilarity is to be observed by the fact that man and woman, alone are singularly the image bearers of God. Genesis 1:24 is the first time הָאָרֶץ (i.e. the earth/land) is mentioned. God is said to have created ever living thing that moves from the earth.

There is another reference to the ground found in Genesis 2:5 where we read, “there was no man to work the ground.” The ground is the sphere of blessing and fruitfulness. Eden was the sphere of God’s richest blessing. God intended to create an image bearer who would work the ground and who would turn the world into the Garden-Temple. Because God made man from the dust of the ground (Gen. 2:7), this sphere of blessing would become the source of fruitfulness. Man was taken out of the ground and was created to work the ground. Adam was made to be fruitful and multiply, and to dress and keep the Garden. Adam was to work the ground and take the Garden out into the world. His task was to turn the world into the Garden-Temple.

We know from Scripture and experience that man forfeited his task by sinning against his Creator. In the pronouncement of judgment on man (Gen. 3:17-19) we discover that the sphere of blessing–the very place where man originated–will now be cursed and turned into a thorny, barren wilderness that man will have to suffer toilsome labor in order to cultivate. The ground was cursed on account of Adam’s sin. Adam was taken from the ground, the ground was the sphere of God’s blessing man, “the environment in which blessings would be uncovered;” but Adam rebelled against His Maker so God cursed the very place out of which He made man.

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Pagan Sun Worship and Roman Catholicism

In the Vatican’s St. Peter’s basilica in Rome, there is a rather remarkable sculpture that probably goes mostly unnoticed by those who visit there. It is a part of a sculpture group by Gian Lorenzo Bernini decorating the tomb of Pope Alexander VII. At the four corners surrounding the kneeling Pope, are the four virtues, Charity, Prudence, Justice and Truth. Charity is on the front left side and “La Verita”, which means “The Truth” is on the right front side of the overview below.

The first thing you might notice is that “Truth” stands with her foot on a globe of the earth, symbolizing her power over the globe. Then looking closer you will see that she clutches in her arms the sun, probably symbolizing Truth’s love for the light rather than darkness, and that the Truth will be revealed in time, by the light of day.

Historically, pagan Babylon worshipped the sun as a deity, and pagan Rome also worshipped the invincible sun. The Roman Catholic Church, with the assistance of Caesar’s civil Sunday law (Constantine), transferred the Sabbath rest to the Sun Day, and commonly uses images and symbols of the sun. In the following articles we will examine the many pagan sunburst images used by the Catholic Church in various forms of art.

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