Harry Dickens – The ‘Great Unconformity’ and Associated Geochemical Evidence for Noahic Flood Erosion

The Bible’s Flood account describes the greatest rain event ever recorded. Forty days and nights of rain falling on the earth (Genesis 7:12) would have caused immense denudation of landmasses around the globe. Evidence for this is provided by a key stratigraphic surface and by associated geochemical signatures.

Nature and extent of the ‘Great Unconformity’

The term ‘Great Unconformity’ was originally used to describe the prominent stratigraphic surface exposed in the Grand Canyon that separates the Lower Cambrian Tapeats Sandstone (of the Sauk cratonic sequence) from the underlying Precambrian strata (Granite Gorge Metamorphic Suite and tilted sedimentary rocks of the Grand Canyon Supergroup).

The Great Unconformity can be traced across North America and globally, including most of today’s southern hemisphere landmasses, along with Western Europe and Siberia—this makes it the “most widely recognised and distinctive stratigraphic surface in the rock record”.

To continue reading Harry Dickens’ article, click here.

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Michael Oard – Evidence Some Woolly Mammoths Asphyxiated from Dust

Occasionally, observational data provides confirmation of creationist predictions. An example is the prediction by Humphreys of the magnetic fields of the solar system planets. Another is the prediction that some woolly mammoths in the permafrost of Siberia, Alaska, and the Yukon Territory of Canada died of asphyxiation while breathing blowing dust.

The prediction of death by breathing blowing dust

The top of the thick permafrost found in Siberia, Alaska, and the northwest Yukon Territory of Canada is frozen loess. Loess is mostly composed of silt from blowing dust but has a small proportion of clay and sand. Woolly mammoths are predominantly interred in loess in the lowlands in these areas. It is interesting to note that during the Ice Age these lowlands were never glaciated. It is difficult for climate models to produce glaciation, but some models, if tweaked enough, will produce glaciation, even over Alaska and Siberia, both mountains and lowlands.

Years ago, I deduced that some Ice Age woolly mammoths and other animals were most likely asphyxiated by breathing blowing dust, before the animals froze. At the time, there was no evidence that some of the animals died by suffocation. At the end of the Ice Age, dry, windy storms blew vast amounts of dust over huge areas of the world and deposited the dust in thick layers. The dust storms would have been generated by a combination of factors, including increased sea ice. The sea ice would have cooled the air and reduced oceanic evaporation, resulting in cold, dry air in the mid and high latitudes. The effect would have caused colder winters than today with little additional snowfall, but summers would have been warmer with more sunshine, resulting in net melting of the ice sheets.

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Dr. Andrew Snelling – Five Mass Extinctions or One Cataclysmic Event?

Many scientists claim the fossil record shows many mass extinctions separated by millions of years. Does the Bible give a better explanation?

Imagine relaxing at your dream vacation spot. Do you prefer a tropical forest, lush and humid, where fragrances from exotic flowers overwhelm your senses? Or a sandy coast, where the sun warms your skin and the palm trees sway? Or a secluded old-growth forest, where the only sound for miles around is a trickling brook?

Now add a triceratops splashing in the water, while a duck-billed dinosaur lazily chomps on a tasty conifer tree nearby. Overhead, a pterosaur glides toward its lair in the jagged cliffs.

What an amazing world we live in, and what an amazing world it once was! Fossils indicate that the earth has been covered with a wondrous array of environments in the past.

Then something happened. The earth’s rocks indicate that past catastrophes struck on a scale unlike anything we see today. The earth’s crust split open, belching toxic fumes into the sky and sending rivers of lava that swallowed up forests and everything else in their path.

The original continent also broke apart. The land rose and fell as the broken landmasses slid around and bashed into each other. A deluge of floodwaters battered the shallow seas and coasts, and then moved inland. Terrified animals roared and screamed, seeking safety but finding none.

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Mike Oard – How did the Waters of Noah’s Flood Drain Off the Continents?

Many ask: “If Noah’s Flood really covered the whole earth, then where did the water go?”

This question has a simple answer, and once we understand what happened and how, we can see the reality of the biblical Flood all around the world.

The floodwater is in the oceans

Actually, the Bible tells us where the water went. By Day 150 of the Flood catastrophe the floodwaters had risen until they covered “all the high mountains under the whole heaven” (Genesis 7:19). After that “the waters receded from the earth continually” (Genesis 8:3), a process that took about seven months.

As the water receded from the continents it must have flowed into the oceans. It only takes a quick look at a globe of the earth to appreciate that the water indeed sits in the oceans. The Pacific Ocean alone takes up almost half the earth’s surface (Figure 1).

The crust goes up and down

Logically, the only way for the water to drain from the continents into the oceans is for the continents to rise and the ocean floors to sink. As our knowledge of the structure of the earth has grown we can appreciate how that could have happened.

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Andrew Snelling – When Continents Collide

When geologists assume the earth changes slowly, they overlook astonishing evidence of Noah’s global Flood.

Writing in the early 1800s, lawyer-turned-geologist Charles Lyell radically changed how people look at the world. Using his legal training to build cases, he argued convincingly that the earth’s piles of rock layers were formed over millions of years by slow and gradual processes. His skill was so persuasive that geologists stopped even considering the possibility that some large sediment layers formed rapidly. Terms to describe fast deposits weren’t even coined until recent decades. Older geologic dictionaries don’t have a word for deposits made in storms (called tempestites) or for sediment layers reshaped by earthquakes (called seismites).

Even now, because of their old-earth bias, secular geologists assume a rock layer formed slowly unless conclusively demonstrated otherwise. Further, they don’t look for deposits affected by global-scale events. But creationists do.

In 1996 a rancher in Wyoming showed creation geologist Kurt Wise and me a massive sandstone bed with convoluted layering on his ranch. At the time we recognized it as important evidence of the Flood catastrophe, but we did not understand how it formed or its significance.

Then in 2011 creation geologist Arthur Chadwick reported a surprising discovery.1 While excavating thousands of duck-bill and other dinosaur fossils at the ranch for 15 years, he had traced the same six-foot-thick (2 m) sandstone bed across the entire 11-square-mile (28 km2) ranch. He also recognized it as a seismite. That was astonishing, since geologists are used to thinking of seismites in terms of inches, not feet.

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Murray Adamthwaite – Gilgamesh and the Biblical Flood (Part 1)

gilgamesh-epic-tablet

In a previous article (See: Is Genesis 1 Just Reworked Babylonian Myth?), I discussed the allegation that the author of Genesis 1 borrowed from Enuma elish, the so-called Babylonian creation story, and concluded that there was no real relation at all, other than garbled—and generalized—versions of creation finding their way to mythologies about inter-necine conflicts among the gods, and attached thereto.

The present discussion looks at the Babylonian story of the Deluge, as enshrined in the Gilgamesh Epic. Here we do find quite a number of fairly close parallels—at least superficially so, and when seen in context with other Ancient Near Eastern literature relating a story of a great Deluge these parallels require explanation. However, some of the rather simplistic ‘explanations’ proposed by certain scholars will not stand examination, while the all-too-common discussion plays up the similarities, and at the same time glosses over, or even ignores, the profound differences between Genesis and Gilgamesh, not to mention the lack of inner coherence in the Gilgamesh story.

The Gilgamesh Epic was first found in the Great Library of Aššurbanipal at Nineveh, but its Flood story segment was not initially noticed. During 1872 George Smith, then an assistant at the British Museum, discovered the Flood story element on a previously unpublished tablet, and gave a public lecture in December of that year, one which caused a sensation. Later, in 1873, Smith went, at the behest of The Daily Telegraph, to the Kuyunjik site to seek further tablets with the Mesopotamian Flood story, and duly found a piece of missing text, and what later turned out to be fragments of the Atrahasis tale. Many other text portions and fragments of the Gilgamesh Epic have turned up since, including one portion of Tablet VII from Megiddo in Northern Israel, such that we have a substantially complete text, albeit still with several lacunae at various points.

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Book Review: Atlantis: Fact or Fiction

Atlantis

Atlantis is one of those stories that seems to perpetually captivate the imagination. From movies made by Disney to books that attempt to find support for civilization actually existing, say the word Atlantis and all manner of ideas come to mind. But did Atlantis really exist in some for or fashion or was it merely the imagination of Plato? Can any valid support, specifically historical or geological, be presented that proves such a place existed? In the interesting book Atlantis: Fact or Fiction edited by Edwin Ramage, six scholars contribute their perspective from the approach of literature, mythological studies, history, and geology.

The overarching belief by the contributors to this book is Atlantis is nothing more than the imagination of Plato. Little if any proof can be discovered in their estimation to support Atlantis as being real. Despite the efforts of authors such as Ignatius Donnelly and others to carry on the fascination with Atlantis, the contributors to this particular work reject outright Atlantis as being real. If anything, it is nothing more than an attempt by Plato to describe the state of affairs in his lifetime.

I have long found the idea of Atlantis to be fascinating. Could Atlantis have been a place that existed for instance before the Noahic flood? Given the catastrophic events described by Plato that led to the demise of this supposedly advanced civilization, could there be some method to connect the global deluge described in Scripture with the destruction of Atlantis? I went into reading this book hoping such an approach would be alluded to with some level of series thought given to that idea. While the biblical flood narrative was mentioned by contributor S. Casey Fredericks, it was in the context of Noah’s flood being just another in a long line of ancient flood legends. In fact, Fredericks clearly states his belief that the story of Atlantis as told by Plato is rooted in same foundation as all the other mythological flood stories in the various Ancient Near Eastern (ANE) cultures. The biblical account is simply just another ANE story or perhaps a legend.

Ultimately, it seems clear, at least from the perspective of the various scholars who contributed to this book, that the story of Atlantis belongs squarely in the realm of myth. I found it interesting; however, that the basis for that belief to some degree is founded on the rejection of a global catastrophe as being valid. One contributor in particular discussed the lack of geological evidence for the destruction of Atlantis. She referenced the slow and methodical movement of continents with another contributor noting the millions of years of the geologic scale. The millions of years statement of course is in keeping with the theory of evolution which rejects any sort of perspective taken from a source such as the Bible and more specifically, the notion of a global catastrophic flood as being a major factor for consideration.

It would be interesting to read what a creation scientist might have to say about the geological factors that might have an impact on the validity of the Atlantean myth. In the end, the story of Atlantis might be just that, a fun story told by Plato that has no verifiable historical roots. The contributors to Atlantis: Fact or Fiction definitely sit on the side of Atlantis being fiction. The evidence they presented is compelling and thus I would consider this a worthwhile read if you are interested in the veracity of Plato’s story of Atlantis. If nothing else, it will provide you with some food for thought and it might, as it has done for me, drive you to study this topic a bit further to see if there is a possibility of connection the global catastrophe of Noah’s flood to something such as the destruction of Atlantis. It may be just rabbit hole, but sometimes rabbit holes are a fun journey to take.

Outside of the rejection of the biblical account of Noah’s flood as mere myth and the embracing of evolution’s millions of years mantra to discussion matters of geology, I found this book to be quite interesting. It does not fully solve for me the mystery of Atlantis nor do the arguments presented create a full doubt in my mind of the existence of Atlantis, but after reading this book, I definitely am more informed of the various pro and con arguments, and I realize even more the need to support the biblical account of something like Noah’s flood as being actual history even when engaging what may prove to be the story of Atlantis being just a story/myth.

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Lita Cosner – The Global Flood: According to the New Testament

Many Bible skeptics regard Genesis 1–11 as mythical, copied from Enuma Elish, the Epic of Gilgamesh, and other such ancient writings—so not only is it a primitive myth, it’s not a particularly original one, in their view. We’ve often written about the characteristics of Genesis that show it claims to record history.

Sadly many believers have bought into these interpretations, but as Christians, aren’t we supposed to believe what Jesus did? And it’s easy to extend that to believing what the apostles that He appointed and inspired by the Holy Spirit to author Scripture believed as well. If Christians don’t believe the Bible, in what sense are they ‘Christ followers’? So let’s look at what Jesus believed and what the New Testament tells us about the circumstances surrounding Noah’s Flood.

The world at the time of Noah

In Noah’s day, Jesus tells us that people were going about conducting ‘business as usual’ until the Flood came: “in those days before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day Noah entered the ark, and they were unaware until the flood came and swept them all away” (Matthew 24:38–39). But it wasn’t a pleasant place to live—the culture was so immoral that Peter called it “the world of the ungodly” (κοσμῳ ἀσεβῶν, kosmō asebōn, 2 Peter 2:5). There were even angels who sinned at that time (2 Peter 2:4) by deserting their proper positions (Jude 1:11). While the New Testament doesn’t specify exactly what this sin was, it fits in nicely with the assertion in Genesis 6 that the ‘sons of God’ took wives among the ‘daughters of men’—in other words, angels taking human wives1 and fathering the Nephilim.

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Tim Chaffey and Jason Lisle – Old Earth Creationism on Trial: Prosecution – Extent of the Flood

by Tim Chaffey and Jason Lisle

Often overlooked in the debate between old-earth creationists and young-earth creationists is the biblical account of the Flood. John Ankerberg hosted a debate between young-earthers Ken Ham and Dr. Jason Lisle and old-earthers Dr. Walter Kaiser and Dr. Hugh Ross on the John Ankerberg Show. This debate was filmed in January 2006 and began airing later the same month. Of the ten sessions available on DVD, only a portion of one session was devoted to this topic. This is unfortunate, because the topic of the Flood is inexorably linked with the battle over the days of Genesis.

Young-earth creationists contend that Genesis clearly teaches that the Flood was a worldwide, cataclysmic event. In other words, every single piece of earth throughout the entire world was under water at the same time. The only land-dwelling creatures that survived this Flood were those on board the ark. It is important to understand the extent of the Flood, because many old-earthers use ambiguous language. For example, Dr. Hugh Ross claims to believe in what he calls a “universal” Flood. By this, however, he means that God sent a geographically localized flood that destroyed everything that had come into contact with sinful humans, who at the time (Ross believes) were only living in the Mesopotamian valley (roughly modern-day Iraq). He reasons that there would be no need for God to wipe out Antarctica and its animal inhabitants, because man had not ventured that far yet. These ideas will be examined in chapter 6.

This topic is crucial for another reason. The old-earth creation model accepts secular dating estimates of fossils and rock layers. Hence, old-earth creationists believe that most of the fossils and sedimentary rock layers on earth were laid down over millions of years. However, young-earth geologists have pointed out that a worldwide flood could also account for these features—without the need for millions of years. Certainly, a global flood would kill billions of organisms and trap them in layers of sediment, accounting for the sedimentary rock layers and fossils we see today. So, a global flood means the fossils and rocks are not millions of years old; they are powerful evidence for a young earth. Conversely, if the rocks and fossils really were millions of years old, then there cannot have been a worldwide flood—since such a violent Flood would destroy any previous fossil record. Old-earth creationists therefore must deny a global flood in order for their position to make any sense.

A great deal of research has been done by young-earth creationists confirming that a worldwide flood can account for earth’s amazingly diverse topography. It is beyond the scope of this book to examine all the scientific evidence in this field; nonetheless, several examples are provided in chapter 7. Here, the biblical evidence for a worldwide deluge will be presented.

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Dr. Andrew Snelling – Did Meteors Trigger Noah’s Flood?

Have you ever wondered what triggered the Genesis Flood? Genesis 7:11 tells us that a unique geologic event took place at the same moment as the Flood began: “In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, on that day all the fountains of the great deep were broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.”

Most creation geologists believe that the opening of “the fountains of the great deep” refers to the breakup of the earth’s crust into plates. The subsequent rapid, catastrophic movement of these plates would have released huge quantities of hot subterranean waters and molten rock into the ocean. As the hot water gushed through the fractured seafloor, the water flashed into superheated steam and shot high into the atmosphere as supersonic steam jets, carrying sea water that eventually fell as rain.

But what catastrophe might God have used to cause the earth’s crust—many miles thick—to crack? Some have suggested a meteorite or asteroid impact of unprecedented size and scope. Do we find any evidence? Geologists have discovered some gargantuous remnant craters and piles of debris, leftover from massive impacts that easily fit the bill.
A Smoking Gun in Australia?

One example of an impact powerful enough to trigger the Flood is the 56-milewide (90 km) Acraman impact crater in South Australia. It apparently resulted from a 2.5-mile-wide (4 km) asteroid that slammed into the Outback at almost 16 miles per second (26 km/s) (Figure 1). The explosion would have been equivalent to the detonation of 50,000–100,000 hydrogen bombs all at once! The impact blasted some of the pulverised pre-Flood crystalline basement rocks to sites 280 miles (450 km) away, and the debris accumulated in a layer 16 inches (40 cm) thick within some of the earliest Flood deposits.

An asteroid impact—or several simultaneous impacts—that triggered the Flood may also have been part of an ongoing, solar-system-wide catastrophe that lasted for months or years. If so, we would expect to find evidence of many other meteorites that subsequently hit the earth during God’s judgment on the planet. Two lines of evidence can be used to support this inference: (1) the rapid rate of past cratering during the Flood, and (2) the fields of meteorites left by this bombardment.

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